The Islamic engineer Al-Jazari (1136 – 1206 AD) invented several machines to lift water from a lower to a higher place. One of them was a hydro-powered pump. The flow of water in a river would cause a water wheel to rotate, which caused another wheel to move a pair of copper pistons back and forth. The pistons were attached to pipes that used suction to draw water up to a height of 12 meters. This was the first working example of a double-action piston motion, putting Al-Jazari hundreds of years ahead of his time.

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"The Great World History Book"